The sensory organs of the face and neck are the ear, nose, and throat. They share a few important head structures, such as the sinuses and Eustachian tubes. People may have a variety of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) issues, and clinicians sometimes combine these issues together. The ear, nose, and throat can be affected by a variety of disorders. Some ENT issues are simple, while others are more complicated and involve numerous bodily systems. Although many ENT concerns may be treated by a general practitioner, some patients may need to visit a specialist for thorough diagnosis and treatment. Doctors that specialise in various fields study them all together. An otolaryngologist, often known as an ENT or ENT doctor, is a specialist who studies and treats problems of the ear, nose, and throat. This article looks at some of the most prevalent ear, nose, and throat issues. Not all of these ailments will need specialised care.
What does the term ENT stand for?
The sensory organs that people utilise on a daily basis are connected to the ears, nose, and
throat. The inner ear serves to steady the body and create a feeling of balance, while the ears allow a person to hear. A persons nose allows them to smell as well as taste. Breathing via your nose humidifies and filters the air before it reaches your lungs. The throat allows air to reach the lungs and the voice box. It also links the mouth with the oesophagus, via which food passes on its way to the digestive system. These organs and their tissues are part of the complex face and neck systems, and they share a few key characteristics. The sinuses, which travel behind the eyes and nose, and the Eustachian tubes, which connect the middle ear to the throat, are two examples. Because several organs in the ENT system are shared, problems in one portion of the ENT
system may impact an organ or structure in another section of the ENT system.
Ear issues that are common
The following are some instances of frequent ear-related issues:
Infections of the ears
Ear infections can develop when bacteria in the region grow, resulting in inflammation and
discomfort. Ear infections most commonly affect the outer ear, sometimes known as swimmers ear, or the middle ear, but they can also affect the inner ear. Various ear infections can cause the following symptoms:
- Ear ache, particularly while lying down
- Difficulties sleeping
- Problems hearing or muted hearing
- A sense of fullness in the ear
- Spinning sensation
- Difficulties with balance
- Discharge from the ear
- Warmth and redness of the ear skin
- Ringing in the ear
- Nausea and vomiting
Problems with hearing
Hearing problems, such as hearing loss or muted hearing, can develop as a result ofinfections or other problems in the region. Hearing loss can also be caused by injuries to the ears structures. Some people are born with hearing issues, while others develop hearing problems as they become older.
Tinnitus, or ringing in the ears, can be a sign of a variety of medical problems, including
infections. Tinnitus can also result from ear injury caused by loud noises, such as equipment
or loud music.
Vertigo is a dizziness or spinning sensation in the body. Some people say it makes them feel as though the world around them is whirling or moving. Labyrinthitis, an irritation or inflammation of the sensitive regions of the inner ear that govern balance and hearing, can cause vertigo. Vertigo can also be caused by other illnesses, such as Ménières disease. A general practitioner can decide if an individuals illness requires expert care and, if so, can recommend them to an ENT doctor.
Nasal issues that are common
The following are some of the concerns that might occur as a result of nasal cavity disorders:
The nose is the portion of the face that protrudes the greatest and includes many blood arteries. Even mild trauma, such as hitting the nose or falling down, can produce a nosebleed by damaging the fragile blood vessels.
Other factors to consider are:
- Picking the nose
- Blowing the nose a lot or aggressively, particularly when dealing with an illness in a
- Where the weather is hot and dry, causing nasal cracking and wounds
- Inhaling irritants
- Inhaling drugs such as cocaine
While nosebleeds are normally harmless and go away on their own, frequent or chronic
nosebleeds might indicate an underlying illness or problem. Anyone who has regular nosebleeds or has trouble controlling nosebleeds should see their doctor.
Sinusitis is an infection of the sinuses that is one of the most prevalent causes for patients to
see their doctor in the United States. The hollow portions of the skull that surround the eyes and nose are known as the sinuses. An infection can occur when bacteria become lodged in the sinuses and grow. Sinusitis can develop as a result of a secondary illness, such as a common cold. Sinusitis is a symptom in almost 90% of persons with common colds, according to Trusted Source.
Other chronic issues, such as asthma or allergies, can cause a chronic case of sinusitis that
lasts months or longer.
Symptoms of sinusitis include:
- Discharge from the nose
- Nasal congestion
- Cough discomfort in the teeth, usually the molars
- Due to post-nasal drip
Allergies affect a lot of individuals. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), hay fever, also known as allergic rhinitis, affects up to 60 million individuals in the United States each year. Allergic rhinitis patients react to allergens in the air, such as: Plant pollen, such as that found in flowers and pine trees Dust mites pet hair and dander fungus spores and mold chemical contaminants smoke
Symptoms of allergies include:
- Itching in the eyes and red eyes
- Post-nasal drip
- Eyes that are watering
- Dark circles
- Itchy nose
Finding and eliminating allergies with the aid of an expert, such as an ENT allergist, may provide relief.
Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, can be caused by a throat infection or by a foreign body
or other irritant being caught in the throat. It might also be due to anatomical or neurological
Other signs and symptoms of dysphagia include:
- Food or drink choking
- After eating, coughing
- Excessive salivation
- Coughing up food
- Difficulty chewing
- Pushing food to the back of the mouth
It might be a symptom of something more significant, such as a growth in the region, in some circumstances. Recurrent episodes of dysphagia can be diagnosed and treated with the aid of an expert.
Tonsillitis that recurs
Tonsilitis is characterised by inflammation at the back of the throat. Two soft tissue organs in the rear of the throat are the tonsils. The tonsils may become inflamed as a result of a bacterial infection, resulting in symptoms such as:
- Swollen glands
- Terrible breath
- Sore throat
- Swelling problems
- Swallowing problems
- White coating on tonsils and throat
- Swollen glands
Tonsil removal may be recommended by doctors for those who suffer from tonsillitis on a frequent basis.
Apnea (sleep deprivation)
Sleep apnea is a condition in which a person temporarily stops breathing while sleeping. Similar stoppages, on the other hand, might happen many times during the night. Some types of sleep apnea can cause problems with the nose or throat. Some people aren't aware they have sleep apnea until a partner or family member who hears them sleep notifies them.
The following are some of the signs and symptoms of sleep apnea:
- Waking up with an extremely dry throat
- Headaches upon awakening
- Waking up repeatedly during the night
- Loud snoring,
- Choking during sleep
- Mood difficulties
Sleep apnea sufferers may require therapy from an ENT expert. The ear, nose, and throat can be affected by a variety of diseases and disorders. The sections are interconnected, which means that a malfunction in one part of the system might induce symptoms in another. ENT issues are frequently treated by general practitioners. A doctor may send someone to an otolaryngologist with specific training, skills, and expertise to manage ENT difficulties for more complicated disorders or an accurate diagnosis. To know more visit Diyos Hospital or Book an Appointment with our ENT specialists at +91 9910120836
Dr. Nayeem Ahmad Siddiqui
ENT, Head & Neck
Dr. A. V. Ramesh
ENT & Cochlear Implant