Prostate Cancer: Diagnosis, Treatment and Chemoprevention

  • 05-11-2021
Prostate Cancer: Diagnosis, Treatment and Chemoprevention

What Is Prostate Cancer?

When cells in the body begin to grow out of control, cancer develops. Cancer cells can develop in practically any part of the body and spread to other parts of the body. And when cells in the prostate gland begin to grow out of control, prostate cancer develops. The prostate gland is only found in men. It produces some of the fluid found in sperm.

The prostate is located beneath the bladder (a hollow organ that stores urine) and in front of the rectum (the last part of the intestines). Seminal vesicles, located just behind the prostate, produce the majority of the fluid for semen. The urethra, the tube that transports urine and sperm out of the body through the penis, runs through the prostate's core.

The prostate's size can alter as a man gets older. It is around the size of a walnut in younger men, but it can be much larger in older guys.

Physical Inactivity

Prostate cancer initially present as lower urinary tract symptoms ( LUTS), like Benign Enlargement of Prostate ( BEP) but when it metastases it may present with backache, bone fracture, urinary tract obstruction, rectal pain and chronic renal failure ( CRF ). Preventing prostate cancer might be difficult if you have these risk factors, but screening early and often can help ensure that if you do get cancer, it’s diagnosed and treated as soon as possible.

However, by improving your diet and making lifestyle changes like maintaining a healthy weight, regular exercising, stop smoking and drinking etc have also been shown to reduce the risk of prostate cancer development and progression, allowing men with prostate cancer to live longer and healthier lives.

There may be other risk-reduction options, such as medications, for those who have a very high risk of prostate cancer.In this sense, consulting a doctor is advisable to get it treated as soon as possible to avoid any other serious health problem.

Diagnosis

Once you consult a doctor with your prostate issue, several investigations and tests are to be done to know about the issue so that proper treatment can be started. Diagnosis of Prostate cancer include Direct pre-rectal examination (DRE), Biomarkers like PSA (Prostate-specific antigen), Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), PCA3, AMACR, Circulating T cells Genome study etc, MP-MRI (Multiparametric MRI), PSMA-PET CT whole body and TRUS (Trans-rectal ultrasound) of the prostate with biopsy which confirms the diagnosis, clinical staging and grading. After that, the doctor uses the information from these tests to assign your cancer a stage and prescribe medication accordingly.

Treatment For Prostate Cancer Include

Organ confined (stage1): Treatment of choice is Radical Prostatectomy, either Open or Laparoscopic or Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic. The major complications is impotence and urinary incontinence. Other options are Radiotherapy, like IMRT, IGRT, Brachytherapy, Proton beam therapy.

Focal therapy like Cryotherapy, Laser therapy, HIFU, Irreversible electroporation, vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (VTPD)

Locally Advanced (Stage-2): Treatment May Be

  •  Radical prostatectomy
  •  Hormone therapy
  •  Proton beam therapy
  •  Immunotherapy
  •  Chemotherapy

In Hormone Therapy

  •  Bilateral Orchidectomy
  •  LHRH Agonist – Leuprolide, Goserelin, Triptorelin
  •  GnRH Antagonist – Degarelix
  •  Abiraterone, Enzalutamide, Apalutamide,

Hormone therapy can be given as monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Chemotherapy : Docetaxel or Cabazitaxel mitoxantrone

Immunotherapy: It includes, Sipuleucel T, Prostvac-VF, checkpoint inhibitors.

Metastatic Advance (Stage-3) : Treatment includes: Palliative radiotherapy as monotherapy or combined with chemotherapy, radio-isotopes targeted therapy.

Bone Therapy : In Bone therapy bone metastasis drugs like :
Bisphosphonates

RANK Ligand Inhibitors like Denosumab, Radioisotopes-Radium 223 are used.

Chemoprevention Of Prostate Cancer

Because of its prevalence, disease-related mortality, treatment-related morbidity, and long latency period, prostate cancer is an appropriate target for primary chemoprevention. The PCPT and REDUCE trials show that a relatively nontoxic oral pharmacologic agent can prevent this cancer (5alpha-reductase inhibitors).

The Bottom Line

Some things are beyond our control, but we can control the factors that lower our risk and give our body the best tools for fighting illness. You can always consult a doctor to save yourself from any serious health issues. At Diyos Hospital, we offer the best prostate cancer treatment by the world’s renowned doctors.

Book your appointment with our Urologist today and get yourself examined at the earliest.